Photodynamic Therapy

Extramammary Paget disease

In 1874, Sir James Paget first described Paget disease of the nipple, also known as mammary Paget disease. In 1889, extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) of the scrotum and penis was identified. Although mammary and extramammary Paget disease are both characterized by epidermal Paget cells and share a similar clinical presentation, their uniqueness lies in anatomical location and histogenesis. EMPD presents as an erythematous plaque on apocrine gland bearing areas (i.e. vulva, perineum, perianal region, scrotum, and penis) in older men and women. It can be a focal, multifocal, or an ectopic process. Immunohistochemical staining allows for differentiation between primary and secondary EMPD in addition to the many other disease entities that clinically resemble this malignancy. When diagnosing a patient with EMPD, a full history and physical should be performed given the possibility of an underlying malignancy. Surgical excision currently is first line therapy and the prognosis is often favorable. Recent advances within the field have examined the expression of chemokine receptors within tumors, which may be applicable in determining prognosis. This review addresses the history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathology, differential diagnosis, diagnosis, management, and new observations with respect to extramammary Paget disease.

Multicentric Primary Extramammary Paget Disease: A Toker Cell Disorder?

Toker cells are epithelial clear cells found in the areolar and nipple areas of the breast, vulvar region, and other apocrine gland–bearing areas of the skin. Toker cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of clear cell papulosis, cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells, and rare cases of primary extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) but not in secondary EMPD with underlying adenocarcinoma. The pathogenesis of primary EMPD is not well defined. We report a case of multicentric primary EMPD with evidence of Toker cell proliferation and nonaggressive biologic behavior in a 63-year-old white man. A detailed description of the morphologic and biologic features of Toker cells and their possible carcinogenetic links also are discussed. Based on the observation and follow-up of our patient, we hypothesize that multicentric primary EMPD starts with Toker cell hyperplasia and can potentially evolve to carcinoma in the genital region.

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD), which was first described by Crocker1 in a patient with erythematous patches on the penis and scrotum, is morphologically identical to mammary Paget disease (MPD) of the nipple. The principal difference between EMPD and MPD is anatomic location.

Photodynamic Therapy Following Carbon Dioxide Laser Enhances Efficacy in the Treatment of Extramammary Paget’s Disease

Surgical resection is the first-choice therapy for extramammary Paget’s disease, but extensive resection is highly invasive and non-surgical treatments are sometimes preferred. Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for extramammary Paget’s disease for some time, recurrence and residual tumour cells are common. In the present study, five patients with extramammary Paget’s disease with a total of eight lesions first underwent carbon dioxide (CO2) laser abrasion, followed by 3 h of occlusive application of aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) and then 100 J/cm2 irradiation with a 630-nm excimer dye laser. This combination treatment regime was repeated every 2 weeks for a total of 3 times. Group 1 comprised two patients (five lesions) who received CO2 laser and ALA-PDT only. Group 2 comprised three patients (three lesions) who received CO2 laser and ALA-PDT for residual tumour cells following surgery. Follow-up examinations showed that seven lesions in five patients had not recurred after 12 months, suggesting the efficacy of the present method.