EMPD

An advanced case of extramammary Paget disease: Safe and effective treatment in an inoperable elderly patient using extensive en face electron irradiation

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is an intraepithelial adenocarcinoma characterized by epithelial infiltration of large atypical cells with prominent nuclei.1 The disease process is hypothesized to originate in the apocrine sweat glands in the anogenital region. It is often diagnosed in postmenopausal women and most commonly affects the vulva, perianal skin, and axilla but can sometimes be associated with invasive visceral or adnexal adenocarcinoma.2

Standard therapy for EMPD is wide local excision. However, many of the elderly patients affected by EMPD may be medically unfit for aggressive surgery. Radiotherapy is rarely used, and there is a paucity of reports detailing the efficacy of electron beam radiotherapy for exceptionally large EMPD lesions.

Paget Disease, Extramammary

Introduction

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare dermatologic condition that frequently presents in areas where apocrine sweat glands are abundant, most commonly the vulva, although perineal, scrotal, perianal, and penile skin may also be affected. Lesions clinically present as erythematous, well-demarcated plaques that may become erosive, ulcerated, scaly, or eczematous. Extramammary Paget disease has a female predominance and usually occurs in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Professionals disagree about many aspects of EMPD, for example, the prevalence of concurrent vulvar adenocarcinoma or invasive EMPD, association with regional and distant cancers, and recurrence rates following surgical excision. Early recognition is imperative because the diagnosis is frequently delayed and there is a high incidence of associated invasive disease.

Rare perianal extramammary Paget disease successfully treated using topical Imiquimod therapy

Background: Perianal Paget’s disease (PPD) is a rare intraepithelial adenocarcinoma of the anal margin. Primary PPD likely represents intra-epithelial neoplasm from an apocrine source, whereas secondary disease may represent“pagetoid” spread from an anorectal malignancy.

Case presentation: Histologic CDX-2 and CK20 are hallmark markers for colorectal-derived Paget’s cells. Interestingly, our primary PPD patient presented both positive and no internal malignancy was identified. In addition, a negative CK7 marker was observed in our case in contrast with previously reported. Surgical excision is the standard treatment; however, previous studies have demonstrated good response with Imiquimod 5% cream in patients with vulval extramammary Paget disease (EMPD). The efficiency of Imiquimod treatment for PPD has not been well described. Our PPD patient was successfully treated using Imiquimod 5% cream.

Conclusions: This study describes a primary cutaneous PPD patient CDX-2+/CK20+/CK7- without invasion of the dermis and no associated colorectal carcinoma effectively treated using topical Imiquimod therapy, suggesting that Imiquimod might potentially be considered as a first-line treatment for PPD.

Prognostic Factors of Extramammary Paget’s Disease

Most patients with extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) show a good prognosis; however, some patients develop fatal metastases. Early detection is important for improving prognosis, due to the difficulties associated with the treatment of distant EMPD metastases. Several studies have emphasized the importance of the invasion level of the primary lesion for predicting the presence of metastasis, and deeper invasion or increased thickness is correlated with poorer prognosis. Vascular tumor invasion of the primary lesion can also predict the risk of metastasis. Lymph node metastasis is a strong indicator for poor prognosis, and the number of lymph node metastases affects patient outcome, in that there is a significant difference in survival between patients with zero or one lymph node metastasis and those with more than two lymph node metastases. Serum markers may be able to predict the presence of systemic metastases, and carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 reflect disease progression and may be clinically valuable. Although several genetic alterations have been determined for EMPD, factors determining prognosis should be further explored.

Mayo Clinic: Prospective Registry of Gynecologic Patients With Extramammary Paget's Disease Study

The Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) is currently recruiting women with vulvar Extramammary Paget's Disease for an EMPD study. This includes EMPD of the vulva, vagina or perianal EMPD. The 25-year study will allow physicians to better understand EMPD. The researchers also want to learn more about the microorganisms (microbiome) that live on or near the areas of skin affected by EMPD, in order to better understand this condition. Tumor tissues will be obtained in order to perform tumor molecular profiling to identify targetable somatic mutations in EMPD. This EMPD study is for women only. More information on the Prospective Registry of Gynecologic Patients With Extramammary Paget's Disease study can be found here

131 Mutational landscape of extramammary Paget disease

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare malignancy of the skin. Because of the scarcity of the cases, genomic alterations in EMPD are poorly characterized. To address this issue, we have interrogated 39 EMPD samples and patients blood with exome sequencing. The mutational load of EMPD was moderately high; the median prevalence of somatic mutations was above 3 mutations per megabase, a number comparable to the one of kidney renal cell carcinoma. Our study identified several putative driver events. ERBB2 mutation, as well as amplification, is frequent in our samples and likely the key driver of EMPD. The mutations are enriched in the tyrosine kinase domain of ERBB2, and are likely to cause functional alteration of the gene product. This observation is in line with previous papers reporting the efficacy of trastuzumab for EMPD. Other cancer genes including ERBB3KMT2CMLL4, and COL1A1 are also frequently mutated in EMPD. Driver mutation analysis by OncodriveFM identified potential novel cancer genes that are previously unreported in other cancer types. Copy number analysis identified recurrent somatic copy number aberrations. Frequent deletion peaks included CDKN2A and TSC2, both of which were important tumor suppressor genes. Mutational signature analysis showed that APOBEC3B activation, coupled with aging, was driving the somatic mutations in EMPD. We also identified evidence of APOBEC3B activation including kataegis and strand bias in the EMPD genome. In conclusion, our study provides the comprehensive landscape of somatic mutations in EMPD as well as insights into the mechanisms behind the carcinogenesis of EMPD. We have identified putative driver mutations including ERBB2 and ERBB3, which are readily targeted. We also suggest that EMPD may be treated with cancer immunotherapy, for the moderately high mutational load observed in EMPD is associated with the response to cancer immunotherapy in other cancer types. These insights provide rationale for use of systemic treatments in patients with EMPD.

Extramammary Paget Disease

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare dermatologic condition that frequently presents in areas where apocrine sweat glands are abundant, most commonly the vulva, although perineal, scrotal, perianal, and penile skin may also be affected. Lesions clinically present as erythematous, well-demarcated plaques that may become erosive, ulcerated, scaly, or eczematous. Extramammary Paget disease has a female predominance and usually occurs in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Professionals disagree about many aspects of EMPD, for example, the prevalence of concurrent vulvar adenocarcinoma or invasive EMPD, association with regional and distant cancers, and recurrence rates following surgical excision. Early recognition is imperative because the diagnosis is frequently delayed and there is a high incidence of associated invasive disease.

Evidence-Based Screening Recommendations for Occult Cancers in the Setting of Newly Diagnosed Extramammary Paget Disease

To identify the rates of associated and occult cancers in patients with extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) discovered using cancer screening methods at a tertiary medical center; to propose evidence-based cancer screening guidelines at the time of diagnosis of EMPD; and to clarify terminology associating EMPD with underlying malignancies.

All patients diagnosed with EMPD should undergo cancer screening. At minimum, evaluation should include age-appropriate screening and the addition of urine cytology, mammography, and prostate-specific antigen blood test—if not already performed—may be of particular use. An algorithm for evaluation of patients with newly diagnosed EMPD is proposed.

Tumor Wide Horizontal Invasion Predicts Local Recurrence for Scrotal Extramammary Paget’s Disease

Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a rare malignancy, and little was known about its prognostic factors and optimal treatment. In the current study, we aimed to discuss clinical and pathological features of scrotal EMPD and determine the prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival and local recurrence. A total of 206 patients with scrotal EMPD lesions surgically treated at our institute were studied. All clinical and pathological data were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining of TP53 and Ki67 was examined as well. At the last follow-up, 175 patients (84.95%) were alive. Twelve patients (5.83%) had died of the disease due to distant metastases. Fifteen patients (7.28%) developed local recurrences of scrotal EMPD. Ki67 expression was significantly elevated in patients with wide horizontal invasion (P = 0.003). In univariate analysis, high invasion level, presence of nodule, presence of lymphovascular invasion, adnexa invasion, lymph node metastasis and high p53 expression were significant factors for poor cancer-specific survival. In multivariate analysis, high p53 expression was significantly correlated with poor cancer-specific survival. Wide horizontal invasion was independently correlated with local recurrence-free survival of scrotal EMPD. In conclusion, wide horizontal invasion is an independent risk factor for local recurrence-free survival in the patients with scrotal EMPD.

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center Experience of Metastatic Extramammary Paget Disease 1998-2012

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare cutaneous malignancy. The most common presentation of EMPD is the vulva followed by perianal involvement. Most cases are localized to the dermis with treatment focused on surgery, topical treatment or radiotherapy. Recurrence is frequent despite therapies utilized. Metastatic extramammary Paget disease is uncommon and, as such, standard treatment guidelines do not exist. This study sought to evaluate the treatment regimens and outcomes of patients treated at a Mayo Clinic Center from 1998-2012. Cancer registry inquiry revealed 261 patients with report advanced Paget disease during these years. Ten cases of metastatic EPMD were identified with sufficient documentation for review. This review reveals support for utilizing localized radiation therapy for bulky disease sequentially with systemic chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and paclitaxel or irinotecan. Further studies are necessary to define the optimal treatment regimen.

Successful Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Extramammary Paget’s Disease of the Axilla in a Patient with Parkinson’s Disease

Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm occurring less frequently in men and even more rarely in the axilla. A 59-year-old man with severe Parkinson’s disease presented with axillary EMPD. The neurological comorbidity made treatment of the EMPD problematical and prompted us to propose locoregional intra-arterial chemotherapy in single short sessions. Two innovative chemotherapeutic macrocomplexes were used: doxorubicin incorporated in large liposomes and the taxane paclitaxel incorporated in albumin nanoparticles. A therapeutic response was seen right from the first treatment and was macroscopically close to complete after four cycles. Five months after the end of treatment the patient had minimal visible disease and had enjoyed a distinct improvement in quality of life, with no noteworthy complications related to the intra-arterial chemotherapy with percutaneous transfemoral catheterization.

Prognosis and Management of Extramammary Paget’s Disease and the Association with Secondary Malignancies

Male-to-female ratio was 4:29, and median age was 70 years. Median followup was 68 months, and no patient died from EMPD. The lesion was predominantly found on the vulva (76%). Patch-like, nonconfluent growth was present in 45% of patients, and no patient had pathologic lymph nodes. The most common signs and symptoms were irritation or pruritus (73%) and rash (61%). The presence of patches, invasive tumor growth, or a second malignancy were significantly associated with a higher recurrence rate. The type of operation, either local excision or hemivulvectomy, was not related to the time to recurrence. Complete gross resection was achieved in 94% of cases. Fifty-six percent of patients had microscopically positive margin and this correlated with a significantly higher recurrence rate (p 􏰀 0.002). The tumor recurred clinically in 14 of 33 patients (42%) after a median of 152 months (range 5 to 209 months). In those patients, between one and six reexcisions were performed. In 14 of 33 patients with EMPD (42%), 16 concurrent secondary malignancies were found. Overall survival rates for EMPD patients were similar to those of the general population.