Serum cytokeratin 19 fragment 21‐1 and carcinoembryonic antigen combination assay as a biomarker of tumour progression and treatment response in extramammary Paget's disease

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial adenocarcinoma affecting the genitals and axillary regions. As metastasis of these tumours is itself rare, solid disease management strategies have not been established. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragment 21‐1 (CYFRA 21‐1) levels have been identified as candidate biomarkers for tumour progression in EMPD; however, neither the accuracy of, nor correlation between, these markers have been examined in EMPD patients.

Serum cell‐free DNA levels are useful marker for extramammary Paget's disease

Although carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA) are useful marker for extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD), the serum CEA and CYFRA levels are not elevated in most EMPD patients without metastasis. Therefore, further useful biomarkers are needed for the detection of EMPD including early lesions. Cell‐free DNA (cfDNA) has attracted attention as an indicator of clinical conditions in several cancers, and we studied the clinical implications of cfDNA for EMPD. The serum cfDNA levels were significantly elevated in EMPD patients with or without metastasis compared to those in healthy controls. And serum cfDNA was a better diagnostic marker for the presence of EMPD compared to serum CYFRA. Moreover, the post‐operative serum cfDNA levels were significantly lower than those from the pre‐operative samples, and the change in serum cfDNA levels reflected the clinical courses of EMPD patients treated with chemotherapy. Taken together, serum cfDNA levels may be useful marker for the diagnosis and disease progression in EMPD.

Mayo Clinic: Prospective Registry of Gynecologic Patients With Extramammary Paget's Disease Study

The Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) is currently recruiting women with vulvar Extramammary Paget's Disease for an EMPD study. This includes EMPD of the vulva, vagina or perianal EMPD. The 25-year study will allow physicians to better understand EMPD. The researchers also want to learn more about the microorganisms (microbiome) that live on or near the areas of skin affected by EMPD, in order to better understand this condition. Tumor tissues will be obtained in order to perform tumor molecular profiling to identify targetable somatic mutations in EMPD. This EMPD study is for women only. More information on the Prospective Registry of Gynecologic Patients With Extramammary Paget's Disease study can be found here

Evidence-Based Screening Recommendations for Occult Cancers in the Setting of Newly Diagnosed Extramammary Paget Disease

To identify the rates of associated and occult cancers in patients with extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) discovered using cancer screening methods at a tertiary medical center; to propose evidence-based cancer screening guidelines at the time of diagnosis of EMPD; and to clarify terminology associating EMPD with underlying malignancies.

All patients diagnosed with EMPD should undergo cancer screening. At minimum, evaluation should include age-appropriate screening and the addition of urine cytology, mammography, and prostate-specific antigen blood test—if not already performed—may be of particular use. An algorithm for evaluation of patients with newly diagnosed EMPD is proposed.

Serum cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 is a useful tumor marker for the assessment of extramammary Paget's disease.

Cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) has been used as a tumor marker for several malignancies. However, to date, no studies have assessed whether CYFRA 21-1 could be a useful marker for extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD). The present study aimed to evaluate the significance of CYFRA 21-1 as a serum tumor marker for EMPD progression. Concentrations of serum CYFRA 21-1 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 13 cases of EMPD were measured prior to undergoing treatment at Sapporo Medical University Hospital from January 2014 to May 2016. Four of the 13 patients had lymph node metastases at diagnosis, but none had distant metastases. Immunohistochemistry indicated that all 13 primary tumors and four metastatic tumors in lymph nodes were positive for cytokeratin 19. Although none of the 13 patients showed high serum CEA levels, six patients (46.2%) had elevated serum CYFRA 21-1. Furthermore, CYFRA 21-1 was reduced in association with post-treatment tumor reduction in all six patients. Among these six patients, four developed recurrence and metastasis during the follow-up period. CYFRA 21-1 was re-elevated in all four of these patients; however, serum CEA was elevated only in the patient with distant metastasis. These results suggest that CYFRA 21-1 is more sensitive compared with CEA, and can be useful as a tumor marker for evaluating tumor progression and treatment efficacy in patients with EMPD.