Immunosuppressive

Metastatic Extramammary Paget’s Disease of Scrotum Responds Completely to Single Agent Trastuzumab in a Hemodialysis Patient: Case Report, Molecular Profiling and Brief Review of the Literature

Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a rare cancer. Although EMPD is usually noninvasive and treated with local therapy, once metastatic the prognosis of EMPD is poor and treatment options are limited. We report a case of a complete response to single agent trastuzumab in a hemodialysis patient with metastatic Her2/neu overexpressed EMPD of the scrotum. Molecular profiling of his case as well as 12 other EMPD and 8 mammary Paget disease (MPD) cases was completed and revealed multiple biomarker aberrations. Overexpression of Her2 was frequently noted (30%–40%) in both EMPD and MPD patients and when present can be effectively treated with Her2 targeted agents. Trastuzumab therapy can be safely utilized in a hemodialysis patient. In addition, multiple protein overexpression and loss were seen in EMPD including PD-1, PD-L1, PTEN, and AR as well as PIK3CA mutation. These findings may lead to possible therapeutic interventions targeting these pathways in a disease with few effective treatment options.

Comparison of Foxp3(+) Regulatory T cells and CD163(+) Macrophages in Invasive and Non-invasive Extramammary Paget's Disease

Regulatory T cells (Tregs), identified by the expression of CD4, CD25 and Foxp3, together with immunosuppressive macrophages, such as CD163+ M2 macrophages, are involved in maintaining peripheral tolerance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of Tregs and CD163+ macrophages in invasive and non-invasive extramammary Paget's disease. The presence of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs, CD163+ M2 macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase-9+ cells was examined immunohistologically in fixed sections of lesional skin from 10 patients with non-invasive extramammary Paget's disease and 7 patients with invasive extramammary Paget's disease. Fewer CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs were observed in non-invasive extramammary Paget's disease than in invasive extramammary Paget's disease. In contrast, higher numbers of CD163+ macrophages and metalloproteinase-9+ cells were detected only in invasive extramammary Paget's disease. These findings suggest that the induction of immunosuppressive cells in extramammary Paget's disease differs according to the tumour stage.